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Haymarket Affair, 1886
The Haymarket Affair was a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago. In all, seven policemen and four workers were killed when a dynamite bomb was thrown at the police as they attempted to disperse the protesters. Eight defendants were tried for the crime, five were from Germany and a sixth was a U.S.-born citizen of German descent.
The Haymarket Affair "set off a national wave of xenophobia, as hundreds of foreign-born radicals and labor leaders were rounded up in Chicago and elsewhere," according to the History Channel.